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Royal Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve

Royal Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve Royal Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve with the area of 175 sq. km was established in 1976. It is situated in the southern part of Far-Western Nepal in the Kanchanpur District and features predominant sal associated with arna, semal, karma, khair and sissoo are found along the riverside. The main grass species are the Imperate Cylindrica and the Saccharum Heteropogon, used extensively by the local people for thatching. Nepal, within its ... more

Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve Info

Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Kanchanpur, Nepal Suklaphant Wildlife Reserve which stand today as successful testimony of nature conservation in South Asia. This is the first National Park of Nepal established in 1973 to preserve a unique eco system significantly valuable to the whole world. The Park covering the protected area of 932 Sq. Km. is situated in the subtropical inner Terai lowlands of southern central part of Nepal. The Park gained much wider recognition in the world when UNESCO included this area on the list of World Heritage Site in 1984. It should also be emphasized that only a very small part of the national park is used for tourism.

The great majority of the land, particularly in the hills, remains unvisited and therefore undisturbed. This is ideal for wildlife, and also preserves an element of mystery for humans; because large areas are still unexplored, our knowledge of what birds and animals the park contains is by no means finalized, and there is always the possibility of making new discoveries.

Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Kanchanpur, Nepal Area: 305 sq km as a result of extension. Earlier area was 155 sq km.

Established: Gazetted in 1973 as Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve. In 1969 it was declared as Royal Hunting Reserve and was a famous hunting area.

Location:
Far western Terai in Kanchanpur District in Mahakali zone. The eastern boundary of this reserve is formed by the Chaudhar river by the International boundary pillars in the forest and partly by the Mahakali river.

Physical Features
The riverine flood plain of the reserve comprises hill wash and alluvial deposits. More than 33 percent of the reserve is covered by Sal (Shorea robusta) and other mixed forest. There are extensive grassland called phanta in Nepal. The biggest grassland is called Sukla Phanta. Several other extensive grasslands are separated bt the patches of the forest. A small lake called Rani Talk (Lake) lies on the eastern side of the reserve and it is the most fascinating area for the water birds and migratory birds. There are also several water-logged area known as dhap or swampy ground covered by reed and tall grasses.

English Name Scientific Name
Wild Elephant Elephas maximus
Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera Tigris
Leopard Panthera Pardus
Indian Fox Valpes bengalensis
Jackel Canis aurevs
Wild Boar Sus scrofa
Common Mongoose Herpestes eduivardsi
Porcupine Hystrix indica
Wild Cat Telis Chans
Swamp Deer Cervus duvauclli
Samber Deer Cerus unicolor
Spotted Deer Axix axis
Hog Deer Axix porcinus
Barking Deer Muntiacus mutjac
Blue Bull Boselapus fragocamelus
Hispid Hare Caproiagns hispidus
Black Naped Hare Lepns nigricollis
Marsh Crocodile Crocodyins balustris
Python Python molunus
Fly Squirrel Petaurista petauista
Three Striped Palm Squirrel Tunambulus entielus
Rhesus Monkey Macaca mulatta
Langur Presbytis entielus
Pangolin Manis crassicandata
Common Palm Cive Paradoxurus hermaphroditus
Common Otter Lutra lutra
Rhino Rhinocerous unicornis

The reserve is home to about 45 to 55 Wild Elephant (Elephas maximus) an endangered species, which seems to leave a constant trail of destruction. About 35 Royal Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris), an endangered species, inhabit the reserve preying on the abundant spotted deer. This is the highest densities of Tiger in the range countries. About 268 species of birds have been recorded in the Reserve. Several species of endangered birds including the Bengal Florican (Eupodotis bengalensis) are found in the Reserve. Many grassland birds can be seen in the phantas.

Birds found in RSWR:

English Name Scientific Name
Bengal Florican Eupodotis bengalenis
Common Beafowal Pavo cristatus
Pied Hornbill Anthracolerus malbaricns
Jungle Fowl Gallus gallus
Black Partrige Francolinus francolins

More then 300 species of birds can be seen in the Reserve. Among the reptiles, Marsh Mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris), Indian Python (Python molurus), Monitor Lizard (Varanus monitor) and snakes like Cobra (Naja sp), Krait (Bungarus sp) and Rat snake (Ptyas mucosus) are recorded in this reserve. The reserve is home to 21 species of fish including the Mahaseer, Rohu and Tenger.

Places of Interest
The extensive open grassland of the reserve serves for breathtaking views of the herds of Swamp Deer in the world. Casually in the flock, Hog Deer (Axis porcinus) with its squat, hog like appearance and movements appear. Grassland birds are also very fascinating and attractive.

Wetlands such as Rani Tal, Sikari Tal, and other extension area viz., Kalikitch Lake, Lalpani Tal and Tara Tal also provide halting place for waterfowls. Rani Tal about 17 km from Majgaon the park headquarter is a beautiful lake for viewing waterfowl from machan or viewing towers. Near Rani Tal is the ancient Temple of Singphal, devoted to Lord Shiva. During the Dasain festival, Hindus come here to worship Singphal. Salgoudi Tal (Lake) is extremely pretty and has an abundance of birdlife. There is a Machan (View tower) from which egrets, herons, stroks, eagle, and many of the animals can be seen including elephants.

Fauna
The vegetation makes ideal habitat for swamp deer or Baradingha (Cervus duvauceli). About 2000-2500 Swamp deer inhabit the reserve. Other mammals viz., Spotted deer or Chital (Axis axis), Hog deer (Axis porcinus), Blue Bull or Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Tiger (Panthera tigris), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Sloth Bear (Melursus thibetanus) and Wild Elephant (Elephas maximus) have also been reported. The extremely rare Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus) has recorded in Sukla Phanta.

Vegetation and Wild Animals
Predominant sal (Shorea robusta) forest is associated with asna (Terminalia alata), semal (Bombaxceiba), and karma (Adina Cordifolia). Khair, (Acacia catechu) and sissoo (Dolbergia sisso) forest is found along the river side. The main grass species of the phantas are Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum heteropogon which are extensively used by the local people for thatching.

The reserve provides prime habitat form swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli). An estimated population of 2000 to 2500 is found in the reserve. Other wild animals in the reserve are wild elephant Elephas maximus, tiger (Panthera tigris), hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus), leopard (Panthera pardus), chital (Zxis axis), hog deer (Zxis porcinus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa).

A total 268 species of birds has been recorded in the reserve. Many grassland birds along with the rare Bengal florican be seen in the phantas. Marsh mugger crocodile, Indian python, monitor lizard and snakes like cobra, krait, and rat snake are recorded in the reserve. Wetlands such as Ranital, Sikarital and others in the extension area like Kalikitch Lake, Lalpanital and Taratal, support a healthy population of many kinds of waterfowl, reptiles and other wildlife. Ranital, 18 km. from the reserve HQ., is a beautiful lake for viewing waterfall, with machans (viewing towers).

How to Get There
The reserve is accessible by road as well as by air. The reserve will be easily accessible by road from any parts of Nepal with the completion of the far-wetern sector of East-West Highway. There is once a week flight from Kathmandu to Dhangadhi which is 51 km. far from the park headquarters. There is regular public bus service from Dhangadhi to Mahendranagar taking 3 hours drive and the reserve headquarters is 8 km south-west of Mahendranagar. The reserve can be reached by East-West Highway through Nepalgunj-Dhangadhi-Mahendranagar.

Seasons
The reserve has typically four seasons, viz., winter, spring, summer and monsoon. The months of December and January are fairly cold and misty with occasional frost. Temperatures during the winter range from 10 to 12 C, gradually rising up to 22 to 25 C in February and March. In the pre-monsoon period (April-June) the temperatures range form 30 to 32 C. reaching as high as 42 C with increasing humidity.

Village Development Committees VDC's of Kanchanpur District:

Baise Bichwa Beldandi Chandani Daijee Dekhatbhuli Dodhara
Jhalari Kalika Krishnapur Laxmipur, Mahakali Parasan Pipaladi
Raikawar Bichawa Rampur Bilaspur Rauteli Bichawa Sankarpur Sreepur Suda
Tribhuwanbasti 1 1 1 1 1
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